eigenclass logo
MAIN  Index  Search  Changes  PageRank  Login

Analyzing the stdlib

I took my lexical complexity estimator and ran it against the standard library again. I aggregated the results by "functional units" (e.g. all the files under test/, which belong to Test::Unit, under the "test" group), and generated a few graphs...

Functional units ordered by their average complexity: stdlib-complexity.png

Complexity vs. amount of code: histogram-code.png

Improved code

I simplified the lexical complexity estimator by getting rid of the part that computed stationary distributions based on the transition matrix, and using the observed token frequencies instead. It's a pity though because by doing so I dropped most of the maths (however simple) behind (/me hears sighs of relief). Some consequences:

  • it runs almost an order of magnitude faster
  • results differ the most for small files, due to the edge effect associated to the last token; but this doesn't really matter because these are the files where the markov process is more likely to be periodic anyway...


require 'matrix'

def transition_matrix(filename)
  indices = Hash.new{|h,k| h[k] = indices.size}
  probs = []
  last_tok = nil
  ntokens = 0
  freqs = []
  IO.popen("ruby -y -c #{filename} 2>&1") do |f|
    f.each do |line|
      if md = /^Reading a token: Next token is token (\S+)/.match(line)
        tok = md[1]
        ntokens += 1
        freqs[indices[tok]] ||= 0
        freqs[indices[tok]] += 1
        if last_tok
          probs[indices[last_tok]] ||= []
          probs[indices[last_tok]][indices[tok]] ||= 0
          probs[indices[last_tok]][indices[tok]] += 1
        last_tok = tok
  if ntokens == 0
    return [nil, nil, nil, 0]
  probs.map! do |row|
    sum = row.inject(0){|s,x| s + (x || 0)}
    row.map{|x| 1.0 * (x || 0) / sum }

  freqs = freqs.map{|p| 1.0 * p / ntokens }
  cols = [probs.size, probs.map{|x| x.size}.max].max
  probs << [0] * cols if probs.size < cols
  [Matrix.rows(probs.map{|row| row + [0] * (cols - row.size)}), freqs, indices, ntokens]

LOG2 = Math.log(2)
def H(probs)
  probs.to_a.inject(0) do |s,x|
    if x < 1e-6 # for continuity
      s - 1.0 * x * Math.log(x) / LOG2

if __FILE__ == $0

require 'find'
require 'rbconfig'
require 'yaml'

dir = ARGV[0] || Config::CONFIG["rubylibdir"]

$stdout.sync = true
  statistics = {}
  Dir.chdir(dir) do
    Find.find(".") do |file|
      next unless /\.rb$/ =~ file
      #next unless %r{^./rss.rb$} =~ file
      groupname = File.dirname(file).split(%r{/})[1]
      groupname = File.basename(file)[/[^.]+/] if groupname.nil?
      puts "Processing #{file} (under #{groupname})"

      t_matrix, freqs, indices, tokens = transition_matrix(file)
      next unless t_matrix # skip empty files

      h_rate = freqs.inject([0,0]) do |(s,idx), p|
        [s + p * H(t_matrix.row(idx)), idx + 1]

      h_iid = H(freqs)
      h_eq1 = freqs.inject([0,0]) do |(s,idx), p|
        non_zero = t_matrix.row(idx).to_a.select{|x| x > 0}.size
        non_zero = [1, non_zero].max
        [s + p * Math.log(non_zero) / LOG2, idx + 1]
      h_eq2 = Math.log(t_matrix.row_size) / LOG2

      (statistics[groupname] ||= []) << [file, h_rate, h_eq1, h_iid, h_eq2, tokens]
      #puts t_matrix
      p [file, h_rate, h_eq1, h_iid, h_eq2, tokens]
      # [file, 
      #  h_rate  either the entropy rate of the markov chain if there is
      #          a stationary distribution or the weighted sum of the
      #          entropies for each row in the transition matrix, based on
      #          the observed frequencies for the prev token type
      #  h_eq1   entropy if all possible (as observed by an instance of the
      #          process) choices given the prev token are equidistributed
      #  h_iid   we ignore the markovian process and consider this as a
      #          stochastic process of indep. identically distributed
      #          random variables (so all tokens are considered independent)
      #  h_eq2   entropy per token if we consider them all equally probable
      #  tokens  number of tokens
      # ]

  File.open("lexical.entropy", "w"){|f| Marshal.dump(statistics, f) }
  puts "=" * 80
  puts statistics.to_yaml
  raise if $!


Last modified:2005/12/20 12:10:12
Keyword(s):[blog] [ruby] [lexical] [complexity] [stdlib] [standard] [library]